Aquaculture, also known as aquafarming, is the farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, molluscs and aquatic plants. Aquaculture involves cultivating freshwater and saltwater populations under controlled conditions, and can be contrasted with commercial fishing, which is the harvesting of wild fish. Mariculture refers to aquaculture practiced in marine environments and in underwater habitats.
The reported output from global aquaculture operations would supply one half of the fish and shellfish that is directly consumed by humans; however, there are issues about the reliability of the reported figures. Further, in current aquaculture practice, products from several pounds of wild fish are used to produce one pound of a piscivorous fish like salmon.
Particular kinds of aquaculture include fish farming, shrimp farming, oyster farming, algaculture (such as seaweed farming), and the cultivation of ornamental fish. Particular methods include aquaponics and Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture, both of which integrate fish farming and plant farming.
The farming of fish is the most common form of aquaculture. It involves raising fish commercially in tanks, ponds, or ocean enclosures, usually for food. A facility that releases juvenile fish into the wild for recreational fishing or to supplement a species’ natural numbers is generally referred to as a fish hatchery. Fish species raised by fish farms include salmon, bigeye tuna, carp, tilapia, catfish and cod.
Tilapia has become the third most important fish in aquaculture after carp and salmon; worldwide production exceeded 1,500,000 metric tons in 2002  and increases annually. Because of their high protein content, large size, rapid growth(6 to 7 months to grow to harvest size), and palatability, a number of tilapiine cichlids—specifically, various species of Oreochromis, Sarotherodon, and Tilapia—are the focus of major aquaculture efforts.
Tilapia fisheries originated in Africa. The accidental and deliberate introductions of tilapia into Asian freshwater lakes have inspired outdoor aquaculture projects in various countries with tropical climates, tilapia farmers typically need a costly energy source to maintain a tropical temperature range in their tanks.
Tilapiines are among the easiest and most profitable fish to farm due to their omnivorous diet, mode of reproduction (the fry do not pass through a planktonic phase), tolerance of high stocking density, and rapid growth. In some regions the fish can be raised in rice fields at planting time and grow to edible size (12–15 cm, 5–6 inches) when the rice is ready for harvest. Unlike salmon, which rely on high-protein feeds based on fish or meat, commercially important tilapiine species eat a vegetable or cereal-based diet.
Tilapia raised in inland tanks or channels are considered safe for the environment, since their waste and disease is contained and not spread to the wild. However, tilapiines have acquired notoriety as being among the most serious invasive species in many subtropical and tropical parts of the world.
Commercially grown tilapia are almost exclusively male. Being prolific breeders, female tilapia in the ponds or tanks will result in large populations of small fish. Whole tilapia can be processed into skinless, boneless (PBO) fillets: the yield is from 30% to 37%, depending on fillet size and final trim.
Tilapia from aquaculture contain especially high ratios of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids.
The silver cyprinid, Rastrineobola argentea, is a species of ray-finned fish in the family Cyprinidae, the only member of the genus Rastrineobola. It is found in the Lake Victoria of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda. Its local names are omena (Kenya), dagaa (Tanzania) and mukene (Uganda).
Being a fast-swimming rather small fish of the open waters, it has been better able to withstand the ecological upheaval caused mainly by the introduced predator Lates niloticus (Nile perch) than most other local species. It is not considered a threatened species by the IUCN.
The mukene from Lake Victoria is an important fish in the diet of people in eastern and southern Africa. The fish is caught during moonless nights and in the morning it is spread out for drying in the sun.
Arrow Aquaculture for Africa
Arrow Aquaculture (AAA) is the only commercial mukene fishing enterprise in East Africa. Introducing new technology for the fishing, drying and processing of mukene to an accepted hygienic level for human consumption. Supplying over 40 supermarkets, a number of schools, hospitals and exporting to neighboring countries.
We have created 80 direct jobs and 180 indirect jobs for the local community